Linux and it’s Unix ancestry

Differences between LAN and LAN-to-peer client / server 
market participation requirements 
expert recommendations of the professionalization of organization costs 
NOS Interoperability Requirements

Hardware Differences between LAN and LAN-to-peer client / server

The peer networks or point to point, are based on equality and independence of all workstations connected to the network. Each workstation operating system is installed locally and all the software needed for access to the network. In this type of LAN’s servers are not. Therefore, the users of each workstation makers share the resources of your PC (directories, disk drives, printers, etc..) Completely independently. 

These networks are often present in areas where the cost factor is very important, the budget is limited and the number of workstations is moderate households (SOHO = “Small Office, Home Office”), small offices, etc.. Virtually all modern operating systems include the software necessary to implement such networks: Windows 3.11, 95 and NT Workstation, Mac OS and OS / 2. The main advantage of point to point networks is cost. No need to purchase an additional computer to perform the functions of the server, nor a network operating system (read Novell NetWare, NT Server or IBM OS / 2). Without a server, it can not fail and undermine the work of the stations connected to it. 

But peer networks present some important drawbacks, both in terms of security as in the administration and integrity of information. The comfort that provides centralized management in all aspects (security, resources, etc..) Is simply not possible. From a central server can control access to the network and the resources of any workstation. In the case of point to point network each user is responsible for the administration and security of your computer resources. In to-peer networks, users can unconfigure the operating system on your hard drive (either accidentally or maliciously) so that the workstation can not access network resources can not even boot the local system . 

Applications must be installed locally on each hard disk workstations, so when you upgrade, repeat the tedious process. Another serious security problem is that virus infections are much easier to access workstations to-peer networks. The opposite case is networking with one or more servers. On servers you install a network operating system such as Novell NetWare, Microsoft Windows NT Server, IBM OS / 2 or one of the many versions of UNIX.Workstations require a software that allows them to act as a client of the server. Through the server, and passwords are validated in accordance with it, will allow access to particular network resources. The main advantage of this type of network is centralized. The network administrator can control everything from the server: access, install and update applications, perform backups, etc.. Centralization, can reach the point that the workstations do not have a local hard disk to store your operating system. 

The greatest exponent of centralization is represented by the Network Computers (NC). These stations, lacking any hard disk and other storage in any case require a server. In this position both the operating system and other applications. Therefore, a CN can not function without resorting to a server. On the contrary, this centralization is also the weakness of this type of network: dependence on the server and the problems associated with a drop of it. However, progress is being made increasingly more on the reliability of the servers, both from the standpoint of the software (network operating system software, automatic recovery, cluster architecture, etc.). And from the point of view hardware (UPS, support for multiple processors, etc.).. Another major drawback is cost, not only for the acquisition of a license from the NOS (network operating system), but a client license for each station to connect to the server. 

Regarding the hardware, you should always keep in mind that the minimum requirements of a server will always be higher than a traditional PC, both drives (high capacity and speed, usually SCSI) as in main memory (minimum 64 Mbytes) and processor. Whenever the server power will depend on the number of workstations that served. Summary of differences between client / server networks and point to point network client / server.

Participation in the market for network operating systems

These days of globalization of the economy, the figures presented by renowned companies in charge of the investigation, analysis, evaluation and presentation of data, corresponding to the performance of various market segments, providing an indispensable tool in the decisions that firms make, when making an investment of any kind. Because there are multiple network operating systems on the market, each from different companies, it is necessary to observe the way they are positioned on the buyer’s taste. To decide which one is the best for the present and future business, consider their current numbers, as well as a forecast of trends in the years to come. 

The representative figures of the involvement of NOS in the market, are taken from research conducted by two of the most prestigious companies in the field of data analysis for computer and information: International Data Corporation (IDC) and Computer Intelligence, who continually polls conducted around the world to know the behavior of the leading products that set the standard in technological development of our society. Figures represent the client / server model has become a standard in the institutions that want a robust and secure, so market research to find the network operating system with these characteristics most required, have increased in recent years. 

Novell has been a major player in the networking field since the early 80’s with different versions of NetWare, and still dominates more than half the market, where it has great presence. Microsoft had a slow start with Windows NT system, but recently has had a great topping that led him to be in second place behind the giant Novell. With less force comprises the remainder of the market the OS / 2 from IBM, the solution to client / server networks and Apple AppleShare different variants of UNIX such as Solaris, UnixWare and Linux clone. The survival of these network operating systems will depend on the renewal of both productive strategies in marketing in the years to come, as the battle between Microsoft and Novell for supremacy in the market, it seems not wanting to let a third option. Below is the NOS market client / server 1997 (EUA) The networking requirements have resulted in very high demand in the area of ​​the NOS, and the torque requirements of various users have made market trends vary dramatically in a short time. The companies that dominate the industry widely NOS until recently, have suffered the onslaught of competition from other powerful software, like Microsoft, who has been the big winners in the latest polls.Greatly surprised at the Novell and IBM crashes, although the latter had already shown signs of slow growth with passive marketing strategy. The resurgence of UNIX has been a pleasant surprise and has made predictions about the future very unstable for manufacturers of NOS, but on the other hand, the competition to be the best in the industry will greatly benefit the consumer. The following graph shows the percentage growth of NOS client / server worldwide in 1997. The trends towards the year 2000, seems to be going toward a solution with Windows NT client / server systems, surpassing Novell NetWare and UNIX variants, although it is possible a change in the outcome depends on how they go to the new versions of both NT and NetWare, where both claim to be the complete system for the 21st century. 

In the market-to-peer NOS, Microsoft with its recent WFW and Windows 95/98, had an extensive domain in this field. The network system of Windows 95 revolutionized the market by coming also included free, has an excellent performance. LANtastic NOS has been the most popular point to point in recent years, but has suffered, like others, competition with Microsoft. Point to Point System 7.5 and later of the Macintosh, is strictly limited to run on platforms of the same type. Here you can see the NOS market point to point in 1997 (EUA). Back to topics in this section expert recommendations order to make a proper selection of NOS, it is important to have an objective opinion of people who have experienced or are somehow involved in the operation of these systems, since when have faced person to one or more of them, have a slightly broader perspective of their pros and cons. 

Below is a series of lists that provide the advantages and disadvantages of the three NOS client / server and point to point most popular, based on an arduous collection of opinions, comments and suggestions, professionals from both the commercial and business area, and the academic environment.Advantages and disadvantages of NOS NOVELL NETWARE Advantages: – NDS (Network Directory Service) provides a scalable, global directory, which can be designed for centralized or decentralized. – Excellent management of large-scale networks. – A network operating system hardware independent. – Provides the best print and file system. – Excellent level of security. – Supports applications via NetWare Loadable Modules (NLM). – The vast infrastructure is capable of Novell technical support and assistance for long. – When you discover an error in the recent version of NetWare, Novell makes public the possible solutions for new and existing users. – The larger the network is reduced cost.Disadvantages: – NDS is quite complex to install and manage. – NetWare is losing market share because of the complexity of NetWare 4.1 and NDS. – NetWare platform is somewhat limited in providing services beyond file and print server. – Services such as FTP or HTTP required to purchase additional software from Novell. – The upgrade from one version to another is slow and complex. – Can be expensive for small networks. 

WINDOWS NT SERVER Advantages: – Provides a superior general purpose platform. – Supports multiple processors. – Excellent safety. – There are a variety of applications designed exclusively for NT, including freeware and shareware. – Easy to install and operate. – Has a very user friendly interface. – NT is GUI (Graphical User Interface) and OS (Operating System) at a time. – NT is supported by Microsoft, the most powerful software company in the world. – NT is about to enter full support for UNIX. – Has good technical support. – NT is economical to medium environments. Disadvantages: – It’s a bit slow as file and print server. – Does not support disc levels. – When you discover an error in the recent version of the system, Microsoft is expected to launch the next version to fix it. – Presents serious problems in very large environments. – As infrastructure grows, the cost of NT increases. – Needs lots of computing resources to run correctly. 

UNIX Advantages: – real multiuser system, you can run any application on the server. – It is scalable, with support for 64-bit architecture.- The cost of the different variants of Unix is ​​very small and some are free, such as FreeBSD and Linux. – You can enable and disable drivers or devices without rebooting the system. – UNIX can work with CLI (Command Line Interface). – The Unix kernels are made as needed. – The standards are different suppliers (POSIX). – Provides the ability to perform computer remotely. – This is the best solution for large databases. Disadvantages: – The user interface is not very friendly in some versions. – Requires training because of their complexity, not everyone can use. – Suffers from the lack of commercial applications with important names. – Effectiveness as file and print server is not as efficient as other NOS. – There are discrepancies between different designers and vendors of UNIX. 

MACINTOSH Benefits: – Use the Power PC microprocessor, which by its speed and efficiency has a promising future. – User-friendly environment. NOS is the easiest to use. – Powerful capabilities in management and graphic design. – Compatibility with himself. When purchasing new hardware or software, is much less prone to faulty installation. – Security for Internet server. – Plug and Play features. – Longevity. In Macintosh drastic changes to discontinue application architectures, not given. – Easy network management. Cons: – very small market share. – Not compatible with PCs and other architectures. – There are no clones. – Sometimes there are problems with multitasking. An application can prevent other work. 

WINDOWS 95 Advantages: – Runs on Intel and compatible. It is the most common. – Very user friendly interface. – Knowledge of the market. – Plug and Play features. – Support everywhere. – Compatible with NT to some extent. – Many applications are available. – Ease of networking. Cons: – The old MS-DOS is still behind Windows 95. – Contains some errors in the factory. – Limitations on file names. – Incompatibilities in filenames Windows 3.1 – is slower than other NOS tasking environments (Macintosh). – Incompatible with scalable versions of application software.LANtastic Advantages: – Handles very good safety levels. (Better than any other to-peer NOS). – It is economical. – Supports more than 500 users. – Easy installation and operation. – Easy interface with Microsoft and Novell.Disadvantages: – You must make an extra expense to acquire it. (Windows 95 and Macintosh software including free-to-peer network). – No support for LANtastic everywhere. – Market share reduced. Back to topics in this section of the organization Requirements When selecting the operating system to a LAN network, the organization needs to have information on certain topics, which may influence directly or indirectly in the successful implementation of the NOS the network. Some of these requirements are: professional staff, knowledge of costs of each NOS, hardware requirements and interoperability of systems installed with similar inside and outside the organization. Professionalization of staff When installing a local area network, one of the things that matter most to the organization, who will take over the management and maintenance of the network. Perhaps there is already a network and trained personnel to handle the current NOS, but it is the first time you install a LAN, it will upgrade the NOS, or will change the current system by a completely different is then required to invest in hiring new staff or train that is already in the company, as each NOS has its own degree of difficulty. We all know that Microsoft operating systems such as Windows for Workgroups, Windows 95 and Windows NT, have the characteristic of being easy to use and learning. The Windows GUI is almost identical in all systems, which facilitates the adaptation of a person who has always worked on Windows and now must be networked. Generally, a person who has used both Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 for single-user tasks effectively, is able to manage with a bit of advice, one-to-peer network based on WFW or Windows 95. To manage a Windows NT network, you need a little more knowledge on what corresponds to networks, but the training is not as strong as in other systems. 

NetWare NOS is the most widely used, so most people involved with network management is aware of its operation. For someone who is just beginning, can be somewhat complicated to empathize with NetWare in the first instance, and must undergo training. NetWare version is installed on most medium and large businesses, universities and institutions of all kinds, is the version 3.x. The update to version 4.x is underway in most of them and should be taken into consideration that 4.x includes powerful new features in its operation, such as NDS, which can cause some headaches poorly trained staff on NetWare . It usually requires a network administrator full time. No doubt when they hear the word complexity in networks, immediately comes to mind of many professionals the UNIX system. This thought about that not everyone can use this system, there is some truth and a lot of myth. 

Originally, UNIX was not created with simplicity in mind for the user operation, but the need to address several limitations that had other commercial operating systems. It is true that if you want to install a network based on the UNIX system, you must have personnel trained for such work, since they may present problems for those without prior knowledge, to venture with a network of this type. There are many enthusiastic challenges motivate them and work with UNIX can be, but when you have the right staff to manage this kind of network, the results can be surprising. After seeing these cases, the best thing for an organization that wants to reduce costs is to use the staff you already have, enabling NOS in the management of choice, but considering that it may take some time and some mistakes at the beginning , until you have enough experience. If you are looking for efficiency from the NOS is installed, then the hiring of experienced staff is the most viable alternative, except that usually these people apply for relatively high wages. NOS Costs When starting a project, the economic factor plays a key role in the decision to take, and the selection of a NOS is no exception. The cost varies between each NOS, starting from fairly high price to free distribution systems. The pay more for a NOS does not mean it will be more productive for the organization than a low cost, so we must seek that which meets the expectations of the company, trying, of course, that the payment is always the small as possible. Then it presents recent information on the costs of various NOS analyzed in this work. 

Windows NT 4.0 (Microsoft) 
5 users = $ 809 USD 
10 users = $ 1.129 USD 
50 users = $ 4.799

USD NetWare 4.11 (Novell) 
5 users = $ 
users = $ 1.095 
$ 2.095 10 $ 
50 = $ 4.995 USD users NetWare 5 ( Novell) 5 users = $ 1.195 USD 10 users = $ 2.190 USD 50 users = $ 5.320 USD Linux Free or $ 49.95 USD (CD-ROM). Unrestricted licenses. 

Macintosh (Apple) Update the system 8.5, UnixWare $ 99 (Santa Cruz Operation, SCO) $ 69 USD per unit LANtastic (Artisoft) 1 user = $ 119 USD 10 users = $ 499 USD X users = $ 999 USD LAN Server ( IBM) 1st server = $ 795 USD Each additional license = $ 715 USD

Hardware Requirements

Each network operating system has different hardware requirements to run correctly, if they are not satisfied, the system may not operate or work at a level well lower than expected, causing serious problems in the network. It should then meet the requirements of each NOS to see if it satisfies the current team or need to invest in new hardware. Windows NT 4.0 – 33 MHz 486 processor or higher, Pentium or Pentium Pro, Intel and compatible systems, RISC processor compatible with Windows NT Server 4.0 for RISC-based systems. – 16 MB of memory. – Minimum 125 MB hard disk space Intel and compatible systems, 160 MB for RISC-based systems. – CD-ROM. – Graphics adapter VGA, SVGA or compatible with Windows NT Server 4.0. NetWare 4.11 server: – PC with 386 processor or higher. – 16 MB of RAM (more memory is required depending on number of users, which is loaded on the server, open application number and size of hard disks on the network). – A hard disk with enough free space for the size of the network. (NetWare 4.11 uses at least 55 MB of hard drive). – At least one network adapter. – Cable network. – A CD-ROM for installation. Workstations: – For each workstation must have a network adapter and a computer running the client operating system required. NetWare 5 Server: – PC with Pentium processor or higher. – 64 MB of RAM. – 1 GB hard disk. – At least one network adapter. – Cable network. – A CD-ROM for installation.Workstations: – For each workstation must have a network adapter and a computer running the client operating system required. Solaris 7 – SPARC or Intel Platform 486 (100 MHz) the Pentium. – From 600 MB to 1 GB hard disk. – Minimum 32 MB. UnixWare – Supports PCI systems, I2O, EISA, ISA, MCA Intel Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium II and 80486DX. – Requires floppy 3.5 “CD-ROM. – Needs 500 MB to 1GB of hard disk space. – At least 32 MB of memory. 64 MB are recommended. – SuperVGA adapter and monitor with at least 800×600. Linux – Processor Intel 386 and later, SPARC, Alpha, PowerPC, etc. – At least 4 MB of memory. – 150 to 200 MB hard disk space. VINES – PC or SMP (Super-Minicomputer Program) based on Intel. – 16 MB of memory . adapter – Ethernet, Token Ring or FDDI. LANtastic for Windows 95/98 – 486 processor or higher. – 8 MB of RAM (16 MB recommended). – 12 MB hard disk space. For Windows 3.x – 386SX processor or higher. – 4 MB of RAM. – 10 MB hard disk space. For DOS – PC XT or higher. – 640 KB of RAM. – 7 MB of hard disk space. Windows 95 – PC with 486-25 MHz or higher. – At least 8 MB of memory. – 40 to 45 MB of hard disk space. – Display VGA or higher resolution. Interoperability is the ability of different computer systems, networks, operating systems and applications to work together and share information. In an organization, computer resources are often located in departments or separate working groups, often using various network topologies and communication protocols. At higher levels, these systems often use different operating systems and applications .

It is thus necessary to integrate these systems so that everyone in the organization to communicate and share information and resources. All systems of an organization must be integrated, whether DOS-based computers, Apple Macintosh, UNIX workstations, minicomputers , or large computer systems. The network should be seen as a platform of “plug and play ‘, which connects multiple systems. For this you must use operating systems, applications and hardware products that support multiple networking protocols; also create a network platform underlying communication standards that allow hardware and software work together. Back to topics in this section Back to Home Page Access since December 3, 2000 Find more information on the Internet with this excellent search engine Search the Web. Any comments to: Mr. Manuel Espinoza Curiel Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico this centralization is also the weakness of this type of network: dependence on the server and the problems associated with a drop of it. However, progress is being made increasingly more on the reliability of the servers, both from the standpoint of the software (network operating system software, automatic recovery, cluster architecture, etc.). And from the point of view hardware (UPS, support for multiple processors, etc.).. Another major drawback is cost, not only for the acquisition of a license from the NOS (network operating system), but a client license for each station to connect to the server. Regarding the hardware, you should always keep in mind that the minimum requirements of a server will always be higher than a traditional PC, both drives (high capacity and speed, usually SCSI) as in main memory (minimum 64 Mbytes) and processor. 

Whenever the server power will depend on the number of workstations that served. Summary of differences between client / server networks and point to point network client / servidorRed CostoAlto * Point to Point Economic grandePequeño usuariosMuy SeguridadExcelenteLimitada Number DesempeñoMuy buenoLimitado usoComplejoSencillo Facility * With the exception of Linux and FreeBSD are free.

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