International Space Station refueling

Weighing more than 300 automobiles, or nearly 500 tons, the ISS or International Space Station began deployment in 1998. More than three dozen manned missions since late 2000 have included scientific experiments and work to assemble the station. Several assembly missions launched from the now retired NASA Space Shuttle platform, but the bulk of the heavy lifting to date has been from Russian Soyuz programs.

The resupply and refueling missions are currently handled by Russian missions, with plans to expand refueling and resupply operations to Space-X and Cygnus missions. Cygnus is a government and private industry partnership with Orbital Sciences and Alliant Tech Systems, both companies merged and are located near Washington DC.

Space-X is a venture related to Elon Musk and the Tesla Motor Car, at least the visionary Musk is central to both companies.

Both refueling efforts use the “Harmony” docking system, which is one of at least four different docking systems on the International Space System. Russian systems for refueling seem to include at least the Pirs, Rassvet and Nauka docks, which has to do with the amount of Russian components built into the ISS.

Proponents of the USA private/public space exploration effort look forward to the certification and implementation of the Space-X platform, which may yet occur in 2015.

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  2. Bonza, regarding the King Air, I am being foietcaus, it is useless. I t is a classic example of the RAAF shedding a capability without replacing it.We did start down the path of the MC-12W more than a decade ago, however the Army now has no fixed wing aircraft. Bushranger 71 you are correct, it would appear that most do not study history, or refuse to do so.Can you imagine the CH47 self deploying throughout Asia and beyond? Bonza , the Ch47 costs at least 5 times an hour more to run than an upgraded Caribou.Helicopters have to be torn apart regularly. Fixed wing aircraft do not.Bugger all range Bonza?Original specs.ie Piston engines Caribou, load 4 tons, 1200 miles at max weight of 28,500 lbs.CH47, range, 4 tons 280 miles.7.5 tons 50 miles.Cruise speed.Caribou. Max 158 knotsCh47, 150 knots max, no load.Ceiling Caribou 24,800 feet, CH47 16,000 feetNow, after conversion with PT6, Caribou 60pct improvement in payload range. Do your own calculationsAn update Caribou does not cost $80 million per copy.I am not saying that the CH47 does not have a place in the system, obviously it does.However how can it self deploy long distances in Asia and beyond?Hop from place to place, that describes a helicopter,even in original form it out performs the Chinook.Bonza you did not read the link I provided, not that I am surprised. One eyed people, who are probably involved in the system usually do notI will cut and paste a couple of sections to save you the trouble. Turbo modified “Turbo Caribou”, N600NC, flying off Cape May, New Jersey in the USA. Theaircraft has accumulated over 500 flying hours. Completed a function and reliability trip in June2000 – over 7,000 nm flown in 51.4 hours; average fuel consumption – 910 lbs/hr; total oilconsumption – 1.5 qts per engine; no discrepancies; only tooling used – “a screwdriver to servicefuel and oil”. (Pen Turbo)Ever seen a CH47 do that, 7000 nm in 51.4 hours. Some hopping? In terms of performance capabilities, the TurboCaribou upgrade results in a 30pct increase inmaximum payload capability as a result of the newprop and sustained engine power rating, and agreater than 60pct improvement in payload/rangeagainst the P&W-powered Caribou. The new power plants also produce a 10pct increasein cruise speed and 30pct reduction in time to climbto cruising altitude, while permitting a higher cruisealtitude. US forceslearned the hard way in Afghanistan and Iraq thatusing heavy/medium lift helicopters for this nicheairlift role is expensive so expensive that last yeara debate emerged in Washington on whetheralternatives existed to burning out” helicopterfleets. A slow non-manoeuvrable aircraft that has no defensive systems or ballistic protection, and you can hear from miles away Sounds like a helicopter to me !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Caribou,Take off, max 28,500 lbs, 221 metres.Landing, 28,500 lbs, 204 meters.Original specs. Plus low pressure tire, can land in a swamp, after flying a long way to get there.C27?, do not think so.Is it not about time that there was some real intellect injected into Defence and DMO?Limited capability, no cruise speed, no altitude capability, no load, and no survivability. (How many Chinooks lost in Afghanistan?)Bonza your full of it.

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